*Click to enlarge.

Terrain data (topography): DEM (digital elevation model) or DTM (digital terrain model), with resolution of up to 1m. Depending on the country, terrain data files are usually obtained from local geographical agencies such as the USGS in the United States or IBGE/DSG in Brazil. When available, databases are obtained as a raster file and post-processed to convert to the desired format. When raster data is not available, terrain is extracted from topographical charts in the best scale available or updated by photogrametry systems. The level contours and peaks/summits from the topographical charts are manually digitized, the files then pass through a linearization process using specially developed software, that triangulate the data and interpolate the points between the digitized level contours, thus generating a continuous database, which is a requirement for obtaining the high resolution of data required for simulating wireless systems

Clutter data (morphology): land cover/land usage data specifically defined for telecommunications, considering multiple types of classifications such as – urban, suburban, dense urban, vegetation (low, medium, forests), and others. These databases may be of up to 1 m resolution.

Estimated Building Heights (EBH): current wireless system designs are using higher and higher frequency bands, requiring a high level of detail for planning, for this purpose, CelPlan offers Estimated Building Heights (EBH) databases. This data is generated from very high resolution satellite imagery and provides details for buildings and structures within the Area of Interest (AoI) with a resolution of up to 5m in the Z axis, as illustrated in the following figure.

*Click to enlarge.